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Dan Bricklin: Spreadsheet Inventor on a Life in Computing
Spreadsheet Inventor Dan Bricklin on a Life in Computing
Posted by Martin Veitch
If you use spreadsheets — and today the number of users that do so must be in the hundreds of millions — then every time you open a new workbook, edit a cell or calculate a formula, you can thank Dan Bricklin’s legacy. Bricklin, an MIT graduate and Harvard MBA, developed VisiCalc with Bob Frankston back in 1979. The program not only gave rise to many of the elements of modern spreadsheet programs, selling over a million copies along the way, but, after its 1981 port, also helped the IBM Personal Computer become one of the most important new products of the 20thcentury.
Recently I spoke to Bricklin by phone about VisiCalc, its legacy, the rise of the PC generation and what’s happened since.
First, I asked him to sketch a picture of financial management as it was when he wrote the code for what would become VisiCalc.
“For hundreds of years, financial stuff was done on pen and paper and frequently on columns and rows with labels around them. [In the 1970s] we’d be doing it on paper or typing up things. That’s how you kept your books. When they talked about book-keeping, it was exactly that: there were pages in books. Our first name for VisiCalc was Calcu-ledger because that helped explain what we were doing: providing calculations for general ledger.”
Although the spreadsheet made his name, Bricklin had been largely concentrating on another software category that was to change the way the world worked.
“My background was in word processing but, back then, computerised printing of letters was mostly used in things like fundraising where you’d print one letter hundreds of times. The idea of using that equipment for a plain old letter by a typist… they were just too expensive. The idea of a screen-based word processor was a new thing when I was working in the Seventies at Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) but I had been exposed to systems like [drawing program] Sketchpad which were interactive programs that had started to become popular in the Sixties and Seventies in research institutions. Computers were becoming important in newspapers so a reporter could type something in and see what it would look like but [for the majority of people] the idea of using a computer to do these things was new.”
When Bricklin prototyped VisiCalc, he showed it to his Harvard professor who told him that his competition was calculating on the back of an envelope; if VisiCalc wasn’t faster, people would never use it. That notion helped make Bricklin a pioneer in another way: delivering a user experience (even before the term had been coined) that was intuitive so a new computer user would understand the new electronic tools. So, VisiCalc looked like a ledger book. Similarly, in word processing, manual tools like scissors and glue became ‘cut’ and ‘paste’ features. Add in extra automation capabilities such as having words automatically wrap around lines of text and you had something that was revolutionary, in the days before even Wang and WordStar automated office tasks.
But at the time, computers were rare, pricey and lacking a standard.
“A person being able to buy a computer in a Radio Shack store was a new thing in the Seventies. The only connection most people had to a computer was using automated teller machines. Timesharing with a terminal where you all shared this remote computer was being developed in the Sixties and started to become popular in the Seventies. People were starting to do financial forecasting but that would cost thousands of dollars a month, plus you’d need terminals. For sizeable companies doing MRP [manufacturing resource planning] that was reasonable, but it would cost $5,000 to $10,000 each for a word processing system of letter quality.”
That pioneer environment explains why Bricklin had no great expectations for commercial success with VisiCalc but he was driven by an idea.
“I came from the word processing world and in this What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get world I’d seen a mouse and was familiar with interactive systems. I think it’d seen an Alto [early Xerox computer], played Space War [a game for the DEC PDP-1], seen Sketchpad, knew APL and Basic. The idea of having what we did with words and numbers on paper but with computation seemed pretty obvious; if there was a ‘eureka’ moment, that was it.
“But I was in word processing and did word processing take off like crazy? No. Was it on every desk? No. Today, people hardly know how to write [in longhand] but in those days the idea that computers would be cheap enough... We knew what should be but we also knew from hindsight that acceptance was very slow. I had seen the mouse in the 1970s, it was invented before that and didn’t come into acceptance until the 80s. So although we had something we saw was wonderful, we had no expectations.”
With the benefit of hindsight though, grass shoots and signs were discernible.
“There were people making money out of software. [Mainframe database maker] Cullinane was the first pre-packaged software company to go public so we knew it was possible. But on the PC there were no [commercial] models. Almost nobody knew who Bill Gates was and he was maybe making a few million dollars a year.”
Also, the economics of the day were very different as an Apple II “fully loaded” with daisywheel printer and screen cost about $5,000, the equivalent of about $18,000 today.
This was also a time of scepticism about personal computing with the leading IT suppliers considering it a fad for hobbyists rather than a big opportunity to sell to business users. This attitude was underlined when Bricklin says he considered putting VisiCalc on DEC’s PDP-11 microcomputer before deciding on the Apple II.
“I was thinking about it but the sales person wasn’t very aggressive. It was classical Innovator’s Dilemma. [DEC CEO] Ken Olsen saw PCs as wheelbarrows when he was selling pickup trucks.”
That sort of attitude was unlikely to change Bricklin’s desire to set up his own company with Frankston rather than market his idea to the computing giants of the time.
“I wanted to start a business and be an entrepreneur,” he recalls. “I had taken a few classes at Harvard; there weren’t many in those days but I took those that were on offer.”
Although VisiCalc is sometimes presented as a smash hit that immediately launched the IBM PC, that notion is wrong on three points. VisiCalc was released on the Apple II in 1979, there were other ports before it was made available on the IBM PC, and the initial reaction from the wider world was lukewarm.
“When it first came out, almost nobody but a few people in the computer press wrote about it. There was a humorous article about the National Computer Conference [scene of the VisiCalc launch] in the New York Times where the VisiCalc name was considered funny and the author was making fun of all the computer terms. It then appeared in an announcement about my wedding in the Fall and my father-in-law was able to put some wording in about me being the creator of VisiCalc…
“We had ‘serious volume’ of 1,000 units per month for the first year. That’s nothing, that’s how many copies of a program are downloaded onto iPads every day, or every minute.”
But by comparison to other business software for the personal computer, VisiCalc was a success and the most clued-in sales people at resellers used it to show what personal computers could do.
“They knew that by demonstrating VisiCalc they could sell a PC… it was a killer app. People at HP got it too. One of my classmates at business school worked there and was making a small desktop computer that ran Basic and his boss put VisiCalc on that. Tandy started advertising about VisiCalc and sales started doing a lot better. By the time the IBM PC came out it was understood that it was a good thing and people in the business press started to say ‘can it run VisiCalc?’”
If the laurels are to Bricklin and Frankston for creating the modern spreadsheet from the confluence of the rise in microcomputers, business interest and new software development languages, it was another program and company that cashed in on the full flowering of those trends.
“When Lotus 1-2-3 came out [in 1983], the moon and stars were aligned for [Lotus founder and Bricklin’s friend] Mitch Kapor [to be successful] just as they had been for me to create VisiCalc,” says Bricklin, who adds that he knew the better program when he saw it.
Turn another corner and things could have been different though. Microsoft’s dominance of PC software could have been even greater had it been smarter with its Multiplan product, Bricklin believes.
Had Bricklin been more aggressive and the laws of the day been different, he could have pursued Lotus through the courts for the many features that arguably were derived from VisiCalc.
“The law in the US was that you couldn’t patent software and the chances were one in ten you could try to sneak it through and call it a system,” he recalls.
In truth, Bricklin would make an unlikely litigant and says he never considered such a path. He is proud, rather, that his legacy still looms large, even if he didn’t make the millions that others did. The tech investor Ben Rosen called VisiCalc “the software tail that wags (and sells) the personal computer dog” and there’s no doubt that it played a big part in what happened later to our digitising universe.
While some pioneers skulk and criticise others that followed them and were successful, Bricklin appears to have no trace of bitterness. He remains a staunch fan of Microsoft and Excel, a product that remains a cash machine and still bears the stamp of VisiCalc, 35 years on.
“Doing VisiCalc, I had to come up with the essence of what you need in 32K of RAM and our notion of what was important was correct, it turned out,” he says.
But the power and richness of Excel are remarkable, he says, rejecting the notion that the Redmond company is guilty of creating bloatware.
“Microsoft came from engineers building things: programmers, programmers, programmers — and the hearts and minds of programmers mattered a lot to them. People want to customise things, make it right for what their problem is. It’s the difference between being a carpenter and being an architect — one size does not fit all.
“Microsoft built systems that could be customised, so users could replace that part themselves and it listened to a lot of people and provided what they wanted, all the bells and whistles. People say you end up with bloatware and only 10% of the features get used by any user but that 10% is different for a lot of users. Apple went for smaller number of people and that’s OK because there’s Microsoft for the rest. [Microsoft] had business practices that people didn’t like but is that different than other companies in other industries? Not necessarily.
“As a child of the Sixties I think of Bob Dylan: ‘the loser now will be later to win’. It goes in cycles. The founder of Intel [Andrew Grove] said it: Only the Paranoid Survive and you only have so much time [at the top].”
If Bricklin was before his time with VisiCalc, he was also early onto new trends in user input, creating pen-operated applications at Slate Corporation in the early 1990s and in 2009, a Note Taker app for the “magical” iPad he so admires.
“I decided I wanted to get into that [iOS] world because there were times when I wanted to get something down and if I write 5 and it’s a bit off, that’s OK. But if I did that on a keyboard and it’s a 6, that’s no good for a telephone number. I got to learn what’s it’s like, that world of app stores and so on, and I did all the support so I got to see what people needed.”
That took him to the latest stage of his journey, as CTO for a company specialising in using HTML5 to make software multiplatform.
“I saw businesses were going to replace clipboards with tablets and that’s why I decided to joinAlpha Software. I couldn’t do everything on my own because there’s so much at the back end you need to do but I wanted to innovate at the front end. Being able to customise is something that’s exciting to watch but it takes time. You’d think that in companies with billions of dollars, why would people be carrying around procedure manuals instead of on a digital reader? But they do. [Automating cross-platform capabilities] is extremely important in business. You’d think that most companies would have started taking great advantage of custom mobile opportunities internally, but most haven’t gotten there yet.”
Bricklin remains awestruck by changes he has seen in a lifetime of computing that has made him a sort of smarter Forrest Gump or Zelig for the binary age — a person who was around at some of the biggest the zeitgeist moments in computing history.
“When I was working in word processing in my early twenties, I was doing programming for a person who worked for Jay Forrester and the year I was born as it turned out, Forrester showed theWhirlwind computer on TV and that was the first time the general public got to see a computer in action, in this video from 1951 [YouTube clip
]. Bricklin’s boss stayed up for days making sure it was ready for demo and you can see him there in the background [starting at 4.01]. Those were computers that were the size of big rooms and I was working with him on something you could fit in a desk. And now it’s in the pocket and on a watch soon. This is a progression I’ve seen my whole life and it’s a joy each time.”
Bricklin seems content to be recognised as a founding father of the segment, rather than a Rockerfeller.
“If you look at the old basketball players, they didn’t make as much either,” he says, philosophically. “But we wanted to bring computing to more people and we did that.”
Bricklin delights in the fact that science fiction has become reality and that naysayers have been disproved. It gives him pleasure to think that that those who mocked the personal computer as a place to store recipes now Google their ingredients to automatically generate recipes.
“In 2001: A Space Odyssey they’re using a tablet that looks just like an iPad and it’s this magical device. The crystal ball of fiction is now real. In The Wizard of Oz they had this remote thing; the witch could see things at a distance, control things at distance. This is something you can now buy in a store: a drone-controlling iPad. You can communicate with other people in real time and you can control it with a wave of your hands.”
He ponders the rise of the PC and the changes it wrought as people were freed to create, compose, calculate and pay.
“God!” he exclaims, stretching the syllable in wonder, his voice rising to a crescendo. “It was so exciting to see the thing you believe in succeed and to be accepted. My daughter as a youngster once said, ‘Daddy, did they teach you spreadsheets at school?’ and then, after a few seconds corrected herself. ‘Wait a minute…’ That’s really cool to see people use things that we thought should be used. To be vindicated, that was pretty cool.”
Martin Veitch is Editorial Director at IDG Connect
Dark Social | Social Oscuro
Publicado por: Margaret Rouse | Contribuidor: Laura Aberle
Traducido automáticamente con Google.
Social oscuro es un término utilizado por los especialistas en marketing y optimización de motores de búsqueda (SEO) para describir las referencias de sitios web que son difíciles de rastrear.
El tráfico social oscuro no parece tener una fuente específica, lo que crea un desafío para las empresas que están tratando de supervisar las referencias de sitios web y la actividad de los medios de comunicación social. La mayoría de las veces el tráfico oscuro es el resultado de la gente que comparte los enlaces del sitio web a través de correo electrónico , mensajes de texto y chats privados . Debido a que los vínculos sociales oscuros no tienen código de seguimiento agregado automáticamente a sus URL , no es posible saber cómo el visitante del sitio web encontró el contenido.
El término "social oscuro" fue acuñado por Alexis C. Madrigal, editor senior de The Atlantic, en un artículo de 2012. Según Madrigal, datos de la firma de analítica Web Chartbeat revelaron que el 56,5% del tráfico social del Atlántico provenía de referencias oscuras. Cuando Chartbeat analizó un conjunto más amplio de sitios web, esa estadística aumentó a casi el 69%.
Mientras que Madrigal originalmente no creía que las aplicaciones móviles desempeñaran un papel importante en la oscuridad social, en una actualización de 2014 sobre el tema, explicó que las aplicaciones móviles de Facebook, así como otras aplicaciones móviles, parecen estar detrás de la mayor parte del tráfico social oscuro de hoy. Este hallazgo podría representar un problema nuevo: las plataformas de redes sociales como Facebook pueden realmente tener el mayor poder sobre el tráfico social, pero las aplicaciones móviles dificultan el seguimiento y el análisis.
Seguir leyendo Acerca de Dark Social
El ascenso de la oscuridad social: Todo lo que necesitas saber
Data center design standards bodies
Words to go: Data center design standards bodies
Need a handy reference sheet of the various data center standards organizations? Keep this list by your desk as a reference.
Several organizations produce data center design standards, best practices and guidelines. This glossary lets you keep track of which body produces which standards, and what each acronym means.
Dig deeper on Data center network cabling
Posted by: Margaret Rouse
A data citizen is an employee who relies on digital information to make business decisions and perform job responsibilities.
In the early days of computing, it took a specialist with a strong background in data science to mine structured data for information. Today, business intelligence (BI) tools allow employees at every level of an organization to run ad hoc reports on the fly. Changes in how data can be analyzed and visualized allow workers who have no background in mathematics, statistics or programming be able to make data-driven decisions.
In both a government and data context, however, citizenship comes with responsibilities as well as rights. For example, a citizen who has been granted the right of free speech also has the responsibility to obey federal, state and local laws -- and an employee who has been granted the right to access corporate data also has a responsibility to support the company's data governance policies.
As data citizens increasingly expect more transparent, accessible and trustworthy data from their employers, it has become more important than ever for the rights and responsibilities of both parties to be defined and enforced through policy. To that end, data governance initiatives generally focus on high-level policies and procedures, while data stewardship initiatives focus on maintaining agreed-upon data definitions and formats, identifying data quality issues and ensuring that business users adhere to specified standards.
In addition to enforcing the data citizen's right to easily access trustworthy data, governance controls ensure that data is used in a consistent manner across the enterprise. To support ongoing compliance with external government regulations, as well as internal data policies, audit procedures should also be included in the controls.
Posted by: Margaret Rouse
Within the volumes of big data there are often a lot of small bits of evidence that are contradictory to even clearly data-supported facts. Generally, this data noise can be seen as such and, in the context of the body of data, it is clearly outweighed. When data is selectively chosen from vast sources, however, a picture can often be created to support a desired view, decision or argument that would not be supported by a more rigorously controlled method.
Data confabulation can be used both intentionally and unintentionally to promote the user’s viewpoint. When a decision is made before data is examined, there is a danger of falling prey to confirmation bias even when people are trying to be honest. The term confabulation comes from the field of psychology, where it refers to the tendency of humans to selectively remember, misinterpret or create memories to support a decision, belief or sentiment.
Continue Reading About data confabulation
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Posted by: Margaret Rouse
Data exhaust is the data generated as a byproduct of people’s online actions and choices.
Data exhaust consists of the various files generated by web browsers and their plug-ins such as cookies, log files, temporary internet files and and .sol files (flash cookies). In its less hidden and more legitimate aspect, such data is useful to improve tracking trends and help websites serve their user bases more effectively. Studying data exhaust can also help improve user interface and layout design. As these files reveal the specific choices an individual has made, they are very revealing and are a highly-sought source of information for marketing purposes. Websites store data about people’s actions to maintain user preferences, among other purposes. Data exhaust is also used for the lucrative but privacy-compromising purposes of user tracking for research and marketing.
Data exhaust is named for the way it streams out behind the web user similarly to the way car exhaust streams out behind the motorist. An individual’s digital footprint, sometimes known as a digital dossier, is the body of data that exists as a result of actions and communications online that can in some way be traced back to them. That footprint is broken down as active and passive data traces; digital exhaust consists of the latter. In contrast with the data that people consciously create, data exhaust is unintentionally generated and people are often unaware of it.
Security and privacy software makers struggle with the conflicting goals of marketing and privacy. User software designed to protect security and privacy often disrupts online marketing and research business models. While new methods of persistently storing tracking data are always in development, software vendors constantly design new methods to remove them.
See Michelle Clark's TEDx talk about digital footprints:
Posted by Margaret Rouse
The data profiling process cannot identify inaccurate data; it can only identify business rules violations and anomalies.The insight gained by data profiling can be used to determine how difficult it will be to use existing data for other purposes. It can also be used to provide metrics to assess data quality and help determine whether or not metadata accurately describes the source data.
Profiling tools evaluate the actual content, structure and quality of the data by exploring relationships that exist between value collections both within and across data sets. For example, by examining the frequency distribution of different values for each column in a table, an analyst can gain insight into the type and use of each column. Cross-column analysis can be used to expose embedded value dependencies and inter-table analysis allows the analyst to discover overlapping value sets that represent foreign keyrelationships between entities.
Posted by Margaret Rouse
A data silo is a repository of fixed data that an organization does not regularly use in its day-to-day operation.
A data silo is a repository of fixed data that an organization does not regularly use in its day-to-day operation. So-called siloed data cannot exchange content with other systems in the organization. The expressions "data silo" and "siloed data" arise from the inherent isolation of the information. The data in a silo remains sealed off from the rest of the organization, like grain in a farm silo is closed off from the outside elements.
In recent years, data silos have faced increasing criticism as an impediment to productivity and a danger to data integrity. Data silos also increase the risk that current (or more recent) data will accidentally get overwritten with outdated (or less recent) data. When two or more silos exist for the same data, their contents might differ, creating confusion as to which repository represents the most legitimate or up-to-date version.
Cloud-based data, in contrast to siloed data, can continuously evolve to keep pace with the needs of an organization, its clients, its associates, and its customers. For frequently modified information, cloud backup offers a reasonable alternative to data silos, especially for small and moderate quantities of data. When stored information does not need to be accessed regularly or frequently, it can be kept in a single cloud archive rather than in multiple data silos, ensuring data integration (consistency) among all members and departments in the organization. For these reasons, many organizations have begun to move away from data silos and into cloud-based backup and archiving solutions.
Continue Reading About data silo
Decoding DNA: New Twists and Turns (DNA)
The Scientist takes a bold look at what the future holds for DNA research, bringing together senior investigators and key leaders in the field of genetics and genomics in this 3-part webinar series.
The structure of DNA was solved on February 28, 1953 by James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick, who recognized at once the potential of DNA's double helical structure for storing genetic information — the blueprint of life. For 60 years, this exciting discovery has inspired scientists to decipher the molecule's manifold secrets and resulted in a steady stream of innovative advances in genetics and genomics.
Honoring our editorial mission, The Scientist will take a bold look at what the future holds for DNA research, brining together senior investigators and key leaders in the field of genetics and genomics in this 3-part webinar series.
What's Next in Next-Generation Sequencing?
The advent of Next-Generation Sequencing is considered the most propelling technological advance, which has resulted in the doubling of sequence data almost every 5 months and the precipitous drop in the cost of sequencing a piece of DNA. The first webinar will track the evolution of next-generation sequencing and explore what the future holds in terms of the technology and its applications.
George Church is a professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School, and Director of the Personal Genome Project, providing the world's only open-access information on human genomic, environmental and trait data (GET).His 1984 Harvard PhD included the first methods for direct genome sequencing, molecular multiplexing, and barcoding. These lead to the first commercial genome sequence (pathogen, Helicobacter pylori) in 1994. Hisinnovations in "next generation" genome sequencing and synthesis and cell/tissue engineering resulted in 12 companies spanning fields including medical genomics (Knome, Alacris, AbVitro,GoodStart, Pathogenica) and synthetic biology (LS9, Joule, Gen9,WarpDrive) as well as new privacy, biosafet, and biosecurity policies. He is director of the NIH Centers of Excellence in Genomic Science. His honors include election to NAS & NAE and Franklin Bower Laureate for Achievement in Science.
George Weinstock is currently a professor of genetics and of molecular microbiology at Washington University in Saint Louis. He was previously codirector of the Human Genome Sequencing Center at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas where he was also a professor of molecular and human genetics. Dr. Weinstock received his BS degree from the University of Michigan (Biophysics, 1970) and his PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Microbiology, 1977).
Joel Dudley is an assistant professor of genetics and genomic sciences and Director of Biomedical Informatics at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. His current research is focused on solving key problems in genomic and systems medicine through the development and application of translational and biomedical informatics methodologies. Dudley's published research covers topics in bioinformatics, genomic medicine, personal and clinical genomics, as well as drug and biomarker discovery. His recent work with coauthors describing a novel systems-based approach for computational drug repositioning, was featured in the Wall Street Journal, and earned designation as the NHGRI Director's Genome Advance of the Month. He is also coauthor (with Konrad Karczewski) of the forthcoming book, Exploring Personal Genomics. Dudley received a BS in microbiology from Arizona State University and an MS and PhD in biomedical informatics from Stanford University School of Medicine.
Unraveling the Secrets of the Epigenome
Original Broadcast Date: Thursday April 18, 2013
This second webinar in The Scientist's Decoding DNA series will cover the Secrets of the Epigenome, discussing what is currently known about DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling and how this knowledge can translate to useful therapies.
Stephen Baylin is a professor of medicine and of oncology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, where he is also Chief of the Cancer Biology Division of the Oncology Center and Associate Director for Research of The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center. Together with Peter Jones of the University of Southern California, Baylin also leads the Epigenetic Therapy Stand up to Cancer Team (SU2C). He and his colleagues have fostered the concept that DNA hypermethylation of gene promoters, with its associated transcriptional silencing, can serve as alternatives to mutations for producing loss oftumor-suppressor gene function. Baylin earned both his BS and MD degrees from Duke University, where he completed his internship and first-year residency in internal medicine. He then spent 2 years at the National Heart and Lung Institute of the National Institutes of Health. In 1971, he joined the departments of oncology and medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, an affiliation that still continues.
Victoria Richon heads the Drug Discovery and Preclinical Development Global Oncology Division at Sanofi. Richon joined Sanofi in November 2012 from Epizyme, where she served as vice president of biological sciences beginning in 2008. At Epizyme she was responsible for the strategy and execution of drug discovery and development efforts that ranged from target identification through candidate selection and clinical development, including biomarker strategy and execution. Richon received her BA in chemistry from the University of Vermont and her PhD in biochemistry from the University of Nebraska. She completed her postdoctoral research at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Paolo Sassone-Corsi is Donald Bren Professor of Biological Chemistry and Director of the Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine. Sassone-Corsi is a molecular and cell biologist who has pioneered the links between cell-signaling pathways and the control of gene expression. His research on transcriptional regulation has elucidated a remarkable variety of molecular mechanisms relevant to the fields of endocrinology, neuroscience, metabolism, and cancer. He received his PhD from the University of Naples and completed his postdoctoral research at CNRS, in Strasbourg, France.
The Impact of Personalized Medicine
After the human genome was sequenced, Personalized Medicine became an end goal, driving both academia and the pharma/biotech industry to find and target cellular pathways and drug therapies that are unique to an individual patient. The final webinar in the series will help us better understand The Impact of Personalized Medicine, what we can expect to gain and where we stand to lose.
Jay M. ("Marty") Tenenbaum is founder and chairman of Cancer Commons. Tenenbaum’s background brings a unique perspective of a world-renowned Internet commerce pioneer and visionary. He was founder and CEO of Enterprise Integration Technologies, the first company to conduct a commercial Internet transaction. Tenenbaum joined Commerce One in January 1999, when it acquired Veo Systems. As chief scientist, he was instrumental in shaping the company's business and technology strategies for the Global Trading Web. Tenenbaum holds BS and MS degrees in electrical engineering from MIT, and a PhD from Stanford University.
Amy P. Abernethy, a palliative care physician and hematologist/oncologist, directs both the Center for Learning Health Care (CLHC) in the Duke Clinical Research Institute, and the Duke Cancer Care Research Program (DCCRP) in the Duke Cancer Institute. An internationally recognized expert in health-services research, cancer informatics, and delivery of patient-centered cancer care, she directs a prolific research program (CLHC/DCCRP) which conducts patient-centered clinical trials, analyses, and policy studies. Abernethy received her MD from Duke University School of Medicine.
Geoffrey S. Ginsburg, is the Director of Genomic Medicine at the Duke Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy. He is also the Executive Director of the Center for Personalized Medicine at Duke Medicine and a professor of medicine and pathology at Duke University Medical Center. His work spans oncology, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders. His research is addressing the challenges for translating genomic information into medical practice using new and innovative paradigms, and the integration of personalized medicine into health care. Ginsburg received his MD and PhD in biophysics from Boston University and completed an internal medicine residency at Beth Israel Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.
Abhijit “Ron” Mazumder obtained his BA from Johns Hopkins University, his PhD from the University of Maryland, and his MBA from Lehigh University. He worked for Gen-Probe, Axys Pharmaceuticals, and Motorola, developing genomics technologies. Mazumder joined Johnson & Johnson in 2003, where he led feasibility research for molecular diagnostics programs and managed technology and biomarker partnerships. In 2008, he joined Merck as a senior director and Biomarker Leader. Mazumder rejoined Johnson & Johnson in 2010 and is accountable for all aspects of the development of companion diagnostics needed to support the therapeutic pipeline, including selection of platforms and partners, oversight of diagnostic development, support of regulatory submissions, and design of clinical trials for validation of predictive biomarkers.
Designing For DevOps
Designing For DevOps
DevOps first started as a movement around 2008 and it has grown rapidly over the last several years. In our Designing for DevOps guide, we share...
Please read the attached whitepaper...
Desktop as a Service (DaaS)
Desktop as a Service (DaaS)
Posted by Margaret Rouse
Desktop as a Service (DaaS) is a cloud service in which the back-end of a virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) is hosted by a cloud service provider.
DaaS has a multi-tenancy architecture and the service is purchased on a subscription basis. In the DaaS delivery model, the service provider manages the back-end responsibilities of datastorage, backup, security and upgrades. Typically, the customer's personal data is copied to and from the virtual desktop during logon/logoff and access to the desktop is device, location and network independent. While the provider handles all the back-end infrastructure costs and maintenance, customers usually manage their own desktop images, applications and security, unless thosedesktop management services are part of the subscription.
Desktop as a Service is a good alternative for a small or mid-size businesses (SMBs) that want to provide their end users with the advantages a virtual desktop infrastructure offers, but find that deploying a VDI in-house to be cost-prohibitive in terms of budget and staffing.
This definition is part of our Essential Guide: What you need to know about cloud desktops and DaaS providers
How to utilize it in your IT workspace
Please read the attached whitepaper.