Cloud vs. on-premises: Finding the right balance
By Sandra Gittlen
The process of figuring out which apps work in the cloud vs. on-premises doesn't yield the same results for everyone.
Greg Downer, senior IT director at Oshkosh Corp., a manufacturer of specialty heavy vehicles in Oshkosh, Wisc., wishes he could tip the balance of on-premises vs. cloud more in the direction of the cloud, which currently accounts for only about 20% of his application footprint. However, as a contractor for the Department of Defense, his company is beholden to strict data requirements, including where data is stored.
"Cloud offerings have helped us deploy faster and reduce our data center infrastructure, but the main reason we don't do more in the cloud is because of strict DoD contract requirements for specific types of data," he says.
In Computerworld's Tech Forecast 2017 survey of 196 IT managers and leaders, 79% of respondents said they have a cloud project underway or planned, and 58% of those using some type of cloud-based system gave their efforts an A or B in terms of delivering business value.
Downer counts himself among IT leaders bullish on the cloud and its potential for positive results. "While we don't have a written cloud-first statement, when we do make new investments we look at what the cloud can offer," he says.
Oshkosh has moved some of its back-office systems, including those supporting human resources, legal and IT, to the cloud. He says most of the cloud migration has been from legacy systems to software as a service (SaaS). For instance, the organization uses ServiceNow's SaaS for IT and will soon use it for facilities management.
According to the Forecast report, a third of respondents plan to increase spending on SaaS in the next 12 months.
Cordell Schachter, CTO of New York City's Department of Transportation, says he allies with the 22% of survey respondents who plan to increase investments in a hybrid cloud computing environment. The more non-critical applications he moves out of the city's six-year-old data center, the more room he'll have to support innovative new projects such as the Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Program, a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Transportation's Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office.
The Connected Vehicle project, in the second year of a five-year pilot, aims to use dedicated short-range communication coupled with a network of in-vehicle and roadway sensors to automatically notify drivers of connected vehicles of traffic issues. "If there is an incident ahead of you, your car will either start braking on its own or you'll get a warning light saying there's a problem up ahead so you can avoid a crash," Schachter says. The program's intent is to reduce the more than 30,000 vehicle fatalities that occur in the U.S. each year.
Supporting that communication network and the data it generates will require more than the internal data center, though. Schachter says the effort will draw on a hybrid of on-premises and cloud-based applications and infrastructure. He expects to tap a combination of platform as a service, infrastructure as a service, and SaaS to get to the best of breed for each element of the program.
"We can use the scale of cloud providers and their expertise to do things we wouldn't be able to do internally," he says, adding that all providers must meet NYC DOT's expectations of "safer, faster, smarter and cheaper."
Apps saved for on-premises
In fact, Schachter has walled off only a few areas that aren't candidates for the cloud -- such as emergency services and email. "NYC DOT is one of the most sued entities in New York City, and we constantly need to search our corpus of emails. We have a shown a net positive by keeping that application on-premises to satisfy Freedom of Information Law requests as well as litigation," he says.
The City of Los Angeles also has its share of applications that are too critical to go into the cloud, according to Ted Ross, CIO and general manager of the city's Information Technology Agency. For instance, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), 911 Dispatch, undercover police operations, traffic control and wastewater management are the types of data sets that will remain on-premises for the foreseeable future.
"The impact of an abuse is so high that we wouldn't consider these applications in our first round of cloud migrations. As you can imagine, it's critical that a hacker not gain access to release sewage into the ocean water or try to turn all streetlights green at the same time," he says.
The cloud does serve as an emergency backup to the $108 million state-of-the-art emergency operations center. "If anything happens to the physical facility, our software, mapping and other capabilities can quickly spin up in the cloud," he says, adding that Amazon Web Services and Microsoft Azure provide many compelling use cases.
The city, with more than 1,000 virtual servers on-premises, considers the cloud a cost-effective godsend. "We very much embrace the cloud because it provides an opportunity to lower costs, makes us more flexible and agile, offers off-site disaster recovery, empowers IT personnel, and provides a better user experience," he says.
SaaS is a gateway drug to other cloud services. Ted Ross, CIO, city of Los Angeles
As an early adopter of Google's Gmail in 2010, Ross appreciates the value of the cloud, so much so that in 2014, the city made cloud a primary business model, starting with SaaS, which he calls "a gateway drug to other cloud services."
Eventually, the city ventured into infrastructure as a service, including using "a lot of Amazon Web Services," which Ross describes as more invasive than SaaS and more in need of collaboration between the service provider and the network team. "You have to be prepared to have a shared security model and to take the necessary steps to enact it," he says. Cloud computing also requires additional network bandwidth to reduce latency and maximize performance, he adds.
Other reasons for saying no to the cloud
As much as Ross is a cloud promoter, he says he fully understands the 21% of respondents to Computerworld's Forecast survey who say they have no plans to move to the cloud. "I get worried when users simply want to spin up anything anywhere and are only concerned about functionality, not connectivity and security."
Ron Heinz, founder and managing director of venture capital firm Signal Peak Ventures, says there will always be a market for on-premises applications and infrastructure. For instance, one portfolio client that develops software for accountants found that 40% of its market don't want to move their workflow to the cloud.
Heinz attributes the hesitation to more mature accounting professionals and those with security concerns. "Everybody automatically assumes there is a huge migration to the cloud. But there will always be a segment that will never go the cloud as long as you have strong virtual private networks and strong remote access with encrypted channels," he says.
Greg Collins, founder and principal analyst at analyst firm Exact Ventures, has found clients usually stick with on-premises when they are still depreciating their servers and other gear. "They have the attitude 'if it ain't broke, don't fix it,'" he says.
Still, he also believes the cloud is still in the early days and will only grow as the installed base of on-premises equipment hits end of life.
"We have seen a significant shift in the last couple of years in the interest for public cloud," says Matthew L. Taylor, managing director of consulting firm Accenture Strategy. Accenture, a company of more than 394,000 employees, has most of its own applications hosted in the public cloud.
Many of his clients are not moving as fast. "I wouldn't say the majority of our clients' application loads are in the public cloud today; that's still the opportunity," he says.
Of the clients that have moved to the cloud, very few have gone back to on-premises. "If they did, it wasn't because the cloud-based capabilities were not ready; it was because the company wasn't ready and hadn't thought the migration, application or value case through," Taylor says, adding that others who floundered did so because they couldn't figure out how to wean off their legacy infrastructure and run it in tandem with the cloud.
Most of his clients have been surprised to find that lower service costs have not been the biggest benefit of the cloud. "In the end, savings don't come from technology tools, they come from operational shifts and performance gains," he says.
For instance, a bank in Australia that he wouldn't name moved a critical application to the cloud but had two other applications on-premises, causing performance problems. The performance problems arose because the cloud app relied heavily on the on-premises applications, so performance was slowed as they tried to communicate with one another. Once the bank moved all three applications to the cloud, it found the applications had never performed better, and downtime and maintenance improved.
Kas Naderi, senior vice president of Atlanticus Holdings Corp., a specialty finance company focused on underserved consumers in the U.S., U.K., Guam and Saipan, had a similar experience when the company "lifted and shifted" its entire application portfolio to the cloud. "Every one of our applications performed as good or better than in our data center, which had hardware that was ten years old," he says.
In 2014, the company took all existing applications and ran them "as is" in the cloud environment. Atlanticus relied on consulting firm DISYS to not only validate Atlanticus' migration approach, but also to help staff a 24-hour, "follow the sun" implementation. "They enabled us to accelerate our timeline," he says. In addition, DISYS, an Amazon Web Services partner, lent its expertise to explain what would and wouldn't work in Amazon's cloud.
Atlanticus deployed a federated cloud topology distributed among Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Zadara cloud storage, InContact Automatic Call Distribution, and Vonage phone system, with applications sitting where they operate best -- such as Microsoft Active Directory on Azure. The company front-ends Amazon Web Services with a private cloud that handles security tasks including intrusion detection/prevention and packet inspection. "There is an absolute need for private cloud services to encapsulate a level of security and control that might not be available in the public cloud," Naderi says.
In its next phase of cloud migration, Atlanticus will assess whether legacy applications have SaaS or other cloud-based alternatives that perform even better. In other words, the company took all its applications "as is," including legacy, and put them in the cloud. Now they are going to see if there are better alternatives to those legacy apps available to adopt.
Oshkosh ran a similar exercise and found that cloud-based SharePoint outperformed on-premises SharePoint and improved functionality. For instance, the company has been able to create a space where external suppliers can interact with internal employees, safely exchanging critical information. "That was challenging for on-premises," Downer says.
He adds: "We also are using various CRM cloud applications within some segments, and have started to meet niche business requirements on the shop floor with cloud solutions."
Staffing the cloud
As organizations move to the cloud, they sometimes harbor the misconception that migration means they need fewer IT staff. These IT leaders say that's not the case. Instead, they've gotten more value out of their skilled workforce by retraining them to handle the demands of cloud services.
Greg Downer, senior IT director at specialty vehicle manufacturer Oshkosh Corp.: "We retrained our legacy people, which went well. For instance, we trained our BMC Remedy administrators on the ServiceNow SaaS. We're not just using 10% to 20% of a large on-premises investment, but getting the full value of the platform subscription we are paying for."
Kas Naderi, senior vice president of technology, specialty finance company Atlanticus Holdings Corp.: "Our staff used to be extended beyond the normal 40-hour week, handling ad-hoc requests, emergencies, upgrades, security, etc. We were blessed to have a very flexible and high-IQ staff and were happy to shift their day-to-day responsibilities away from upkeep and maintenance to leadership of how to best leverage these cloud-based platforms for better quality of service. We have become a lot more religious on operating system upgrades and security postures and a lot more strategic on documentation and predictability of services. We went from racking and stacking and maintaining the data center to a business purpose."
Ted Ross, general manager of information technology and CIO, city of Los Angeles: "Moving to the cloud requires a sizeable skills change, but it's also a force multiplier that lets fewer hands do a lot more. We're not a start-up; we're a legacy enterprise. Our data center had a particular set of processes and its own ecosystem and business model. We want to continue that professionalism, but make the pivot to innovative infrastructure. We still have to be smart about data, making sure it's encrypted at rest, and working through controls. The cloud expands our ecosystem considerably, but of course we still don't want to allow critical information into the hands of the wrong people."-- Sandra Gittlen