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Copyleft (COPYRIGHT)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:11 PM
 

Copyleft

Copyleft is the idea and the specific stipulation when distributing software that the user will be able to copy it freely, examine and modify the source code, and redistribute the software to others (free or priced) as long as the redistributed software is also passed along with the copyleft stipulation. The term was originated by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation. Copyleft favors the software user's rights and convenience over the commercial interests of the software makers. It also reflects the belief that freer redistribution and modification of software would encourage users to make improvements to it. ("Free software" is not the same as freeware, which is usually distributed with copyright restrictions.)

Stallman and his adherents do not object to the price or profit aspects of creation and redistribution of software - only to the current restrictions placed on who can use how many copies of the software and how and whether the software can be modified and redistributed.

The de facto collaboration that developed and refined Unix and other collegially-developed programs led the FSF to the idea of "free" software and copyleft. In 1983, the FSF began developing a "free software" project that would both demonstrate the concept while providing value to users. The project was called GNU, an operating system similar to a Unix system. GNU and its various components are currently available and are distributed with copyleft stipulations. Using GNU components, the popular Linux system is also issued with a copyleft.

 
This was last updated in September 2005
Posted by: Margaret Rouse
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Copyright (COPYRIGHT)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:12 PM
 

Copyright

Are You Violating Copyright? | Handling of External Links | Work for Hire | Employee Activities
Protecting Your Own Works | How to Stay Legal | Selected Links 

Copyright is the ownership of an intellectual property within the limits prescribed by a particular nation's or international law. In the United States, for example, the copyright law provides that the owner of a property has the exclusive right to print, distribute, and copy the work, and permission must be obtained by anyone else to reuse the work in these ways. Copyright is provided automatically to the author of any original work covered by the law as soon as the work is created. The author does not have to formally register the work, although registration makes the copyright more visible. (See Circular 66, "Copyright Registration for Online Works," from the U.S Copyright Office.) Copyright extends to unpublished as well as published works. The U.S. law extends copyright for 50 years beyond the life of the author. For reviews and certain other purposes, the "fair use" of a work, typically a quotation or paragraph, is allowed without permission of the author.

The Free Software Foundation fosters a new concept called copyleft in which anyone can freely reuse a work as long as they in turn do not try to restrict others from using their reuse.

EditPros, an editing and marketing communications firm, has allowed us to reprint below an article about copyright as it applies to the Internet.

Are You Violating Copyright on the Internet?

The Internet, inarguably one of the most remarkable developments in international communication and information access, is fast becoming a lair of copyright abuse. The notion of freedom of information and the ease of posting, copying and distributing messages on the Internet may have created a false impression that text and graphic materials on World Wide Web sites, postings in "usenet" news groups, and messages distributed through e-mail lists and other electronic channels are exempt from copyright statutes.

In the United States, copyright is a protection provided under title 17 of the U.S. Code, articulated in the 1976 Copyright Act. Copyright of a creative work extends 50 years beyond the lifespan of its author or designer. Works afforded copyright protection include literature, journalistic reports, musical compositions, theatrical scripts, choreography, artistic matter, architectural designs, motion pictures, computer software, multimedia digital creations, and audio and video recordings. Copyright protection encompasses Web page textual content, graphics, design elements, as well as postings on discussion groups. Canada's Intellectual and Industrial Property Law, Great Britain's Copyright, Designs and Patents Act of 1988, and legislation in other countries signatory to the international Berne Convention copyright principles provide similar protections.

Generally speaking, facts may not be copyrighted; but content related to presentation, organization and conclusions derived from facts certainly can be. Never assume that anything is in the "public domain" without a statement to that effect. Here are some copyright issues important to companies, organizations and individuals.

Handling of External Links

Even though links are addresses and are not subject to copyright regulations, problems can arise in their presentation. If your Web site is composed using frames, and linked sites appear as a window within your frame set, you may be creating the deceptive impression that the content of the linked site is yours. Use HTML coding to ensure that linked external sites appear in their own window, clearly distinct from your site. Incidentally, you may wish to disavow responsibility for the content of sites to which you provide links.

Work for Hire

While copyright ordinarily belongs to the author, copyright ownership of works for hire belong to the employer. The U.S. Copyright Act of 1976 provides two definitions of a work for hire: 1. a work prepared by an employee within the scope of his or her employment; or 2. a work specially ordered or commissioned for use as a contribution to a collective work, as a part of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, as a translation, as a supplementary work, as a compilation, as an instructional text, as a test, as answer material for a test, or as an atlas, if the parties expressly agree in a written instrument signed by them that the work shall be considered a work made for hire. U.S. Copyright Office documentation further states, "Copyright in each separate contribution to a periodical or other collective work is distinct from copyright in the collective work as a whole and vests initially with the author of the contribution."

Employee Activities

Just as making bootleg tapes of recorded music and photocopying books are illegal activities, printing and distributing contents of Web pages or discussion group postings may constitute copyright infringement. And companies may be liable for such activities conducted by their employees using company computing or photocopying equipment. However, the law does not necessarily prohibit downloading files or excerpting and quoting materials. The doctrine of fair use preserves your right to reproduce works or portions of works for certain purposes, notably education, analysis and criticism, parody, research and journalistic reporting. The amount of the work excerpted and the implications of your use on the marketability or value of the works are considerations in determining fair use. Works that are not fixed in a tangible form, such as extemporaneous speeches, do not qualify for copyright protection. Titles of works, and improvisational musical or choreographic compositions that have not been annotated, likewise cannot be copyrighted. Names of musical groups, slogans and short phrases may gain protection as trademarks when registered through the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office.

Protecting Your Own Works

Although copyright automatically applies to any creative work you produce, you can strengthen your legal copyright protection by registering works with the U.S. Copyright Office. Doing so establishes an official record of your copyright, and must be done before filing an infringement civil lawsuit in Federal district court. Registration costs $20. For information, visit the Copyright Office Web site or call (202) 707-3000; TTY is (202) 707-6737.

If you appoint an independent Web developer to create and maintain your Web site, make sure through written agreement that you retain the copyright to your Web content.

Place a copyright notice on each of your Web pages and other published materials. Spell out the word "Copyright" or use the encircled "c" symbol, along with the year of publication and your name, as shown in this example:

Copyright 1998 EditPros marketing communications If you're concerned about copyright protection in other nations, add: "All rights reserved."

Along with your copyright notice, include an acceptable use policy, announcing to your readers how they may use the material. You may allow Web visitors, for example, to download and print pages for their own use, but may prohibit them from distributing those materials to others without your permission. You may wish to decline permission to download graphics or sound files that you created.

How to Stay Legal

If you'd like to share the contents of an interesting Web page with your company employees, describe the page and tell them the URL address of the Web site so they can look for themselves. And if the latest edition of a business newspaper contains an article you'd like to distribute to your 12 board members, either ask the publication for permission to make copies, or buy a dozen copies of the newspaper. Retention of value through sales of that newspaper, after all, is what copyright law is intended to protect.

Selected Links

 The United States Copyright Office contains an explanation of American copyright basics and a list of frequently asked questions, as well as the complete text of the United States Copyright Act of 1976. Topics include copyright ownership and transfer, copyright notice, and copyright infringement and remedies. The site is maintained by the U.S. Library of Congress.

 The Copyright Clearance Center is an online resource operated by the Copyright Clearance Center Inc. (CCC), which was formed in 1978 as a not-for-profit organization to induce compliance with the U.S. copyright law. CCC, based in Danvers, MA, provides licensing systems for reproduction and distribution of copyrighted materials throughout the world.

 Circular 66 from the U. S. Copyright Office explains Copyright Registration for Online Works.


Most of the material in this definition/topic was reprinted from an EditPros newsletter with their permission. EditPros is a writing, editing, and publishing management firm in Davis, California with their own Web site. 

 
This was last updated in September 2005
Posted by: Margaret Rouse
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Creative Commons (COPYRIGHT)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:13 PM
 

Creative Commons

Part of the Open source glossary:
 

Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization that offers copyright licenses for digital work. 

No registration is necessary to use the Creative Commons licenses. Instead, content creators select which of the organization's six licenses best meets their goals, then tag their work so that others know under which terms and conditions the work is released. Users can search the CreativeCommons.org website for creative works such as music, videos, academic writing, code or images to use commercially or to modify, adapt or build upon. 

The six categories of licenses offered are: 

  • Attribution - lets others distribute, remix, tweak and build upon work, even commercially, as long as they credit the creator for the original work.
  • Attribution-NoDerivs - allows for commercial and non-commercial redistribution, as long as the work is passed along unchanged and in whole, crediting the creator.
  • Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike - lets others remix, tweak, and build upon work for non-commercial purposes, as long as they credit the creator and license any new creations under the identical terms.
  • Attribution-ShareAlike - lets others remix, tweak, and build upon work for commercial and non-commercial purposes, as long as they credit the creator and license new creations under the identical terms.
  • Attribution-NonCommercial - lets others remix, tweak, and build upon work for non-commercial purposes, crediting the creator.  Derivative works do not have to be licensed under the same terms.
  • Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs - allows others to download work and share it as long as they credit the creator, don't change the work in any way or use it for commercial purposes. 

See alsocopyleftrights reserved

This was last updated in July 2013

Contributor(s): Emily McLaughlin
Posted by: Margaret Rouse
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A (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:14 PM
 
  • Adaptive Server Enterprise - Adaptive Server Enterpris...
  • Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE) - Adaptive Serv...
  • agnostic - Agnostic, in an information technology (IT) context, refers t...
  • Android OS - Android OS is a Linux-based open source platform for mobi...
  • android sdk - Android OS is a Linux-based open source platform for mo...
  • Ant - Ant is an open source build tool (a program for putting together all th...
  • AoE - ATA over Ethernet (AoE) is an open source network protocol designed to ...
  • Apache - Apache is a freely available Web server that is distributed under...
  • Apache Cassandra - Apache Cassandra is an open source distribute...
  • Apache HBase - Apache HBase is an open source columnar database buil...
  • Apache HTTP server project - The Apache HTTP server pr...
  • Apache Lucene - Apache Lucene is a freely available information ret...
  • Apache Solr - Apache Solr is an open source search platform built upo...
  • ASE - Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE) is a relational database management sy...
  • ATA over Ethernet - ATA over Ethernet (AoE) is an open source n...
  • ATA over Ethernet (AoE) - ATA over Ethernet (AoE) is an o...
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B (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:15 PM
 
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C (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:16 PM
 
  • Cassandra - Apache Cassandra is an open source distributed database sys...
  • Cassandra (Apache Cassandra) - Apache Cassandra is a...
  • cluster panic - Cluster panic is a multiple-node kernel panic that ...
  • Compiere - Compiere is a popular open-source system of software applicat...
  • configuration management software - Puppet is a...
  • Connector ODBC - MySQL Connector/ODBC (sometimes called just Conne...
  • Connector/ODBC - MySQL Connector/ODBC (sometimes called just Conne...
  • Cosmos - Cosmos is an open source, evolving, .NET-based operating system d...
  • Creative Commons - Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization ...
  • Cygwin - Cygwin is an open source collection of tools that allows Unix or ...
  • Darwin - Darwin is the basic "core" of OS X, the operating system for Appl...
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D (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:19 PM
 
  • Darwin - Darwin is the basic "core" of OS X, the operating system for Appl...
  • database-agnostic - Database-agnostic is a term describing the ...
  • Debian - Debian is a popular and freely-available computer operating syste...
  • Debian Linux - Debian is a popular and freely-available computer ope...
  • Distributed Replicated Block Device - DRBD (D...
  • DMOZ - The Open Directory Project (ODP) is a human-edited index of Web sites...
  • DRBD - DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device) is a Linux-based software ...
  • DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device)
  • Drizzle - Drizzle is a lightweight open source database management system...
  • Drupal - Drupal is free, open source software that can be used by individu...
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# (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:20 PM
 
  • .ogg - Vorbis is an open source patent-free audio compression format, develo...
  • 1170 - Spec 1170 was the working name of the standard UNIX programming inter...
  • 1170 (UNIX 98) - Spec 1170 was the working name of the standard UN...
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F (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:23 PM
 
  • Fedora - Fedora is a popular open source Linux-based operating system.
  • Fennec - Fennec is a version of the Firefox browser adapted for mobile pho...
  • FF3 - Firefox 3 (Fx3 or FF3) is the third version of the popular Web browser ...
  • Firefox - Firefox is a Web browser that is smaller, faster, and in some w...
  • Firefox 3 - Firefox 3 (Fx3 or FF3) is the third version of the popular ...
  • Firefox 3 (Fx3 or FF3) - Firefox 3 (Fx3 or FF3) is the thi...
  • Firefox 3.5 - Firefox 3.5 is a version of the Mozilla Foundation's We...
  • Firewall Builder - Firewall Builder, also called Fwbuilder, is a...
  • Firewall Builder (Fwbuilder) - Firewall Builder, als...
  • Flex - Flex is an open source program designed to automatically and quickly ...
  • Flock - Flock is an open source Web browser with advanced features, based o...
  • FLOSS - Free and open source software (FOSS), also known as free/libre open...
  • FOSS - Free and open source software (FOSS), also known as free/libre open s...
  • Free and open source software (FOSS) or free/li...
  • free libre open source software - Free and open s...
  • free software - Free software is software that can be freely used, ...
  • free software - Free and open source software (FOSS), also known as...
  • Free Software Foundation - The Free Software Foundation ...
  • Free Software Foundation (FSF) - The Free Software...
  • free source software - Free and open source software (FOSS),...
  • FreeBSD - FreeBSD is a popular free and open source operating system that...
  • FSF - The Free Software Foundation (FSF) was founded in 1983 along with its d...
  • Fwbuilder - Firewall Builder, also called Fwbuilder, is a vendor-neutra...
  • Fx3 - Firefox 3 (Fx3 or FF3) is the third version of the popular Web browser ...
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E (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:24 PM
 
  • E - Enlightenment, also called E, is a popular free and open source (FOSS) wind...
  • Eclipse - Eclipse is the most widely-used open source integrated developm...
  • Eclipse Foundation - Eclipse is the most widely-used open sour...
  • Eclipse Platform - Eclipse is the most widely-used open source i...
  • Edubuntu - Ubuntu (pronounced oo-BOON-too) is an open source Debian-base...
  • ElasticSearch - ElasticSearch is an open source, RESTful search eng...
  • Enlightenment - Enlightenment, also called E, is a popular free and...
  • Enlightenment (E) - Enlightenment, also called E, is a popular ...
  • Exim - Exim is an open source mail transfer agent (MTA), which is a program ...
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H (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:26 PM
 
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G (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:28 PM
 
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I (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:30 PM
 
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J (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:30 PM
 
  • Jabber - Jabber is an initiative to produce an open source, XML-based inst...
  • Jikes - Jikes is an open source Java compiler from IBM that adheres strictl...
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L (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:33 PM
 
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K (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:34 PM
 
  • K Desktop Environment - K Desktop Environment (KDE) is an O...
  • K Desktop Environment (KDE) - K Desktop Environment (...
  • KDE - K Desktop Environment (KDE) is an Open Source graphical desktop environ...
  • kernel panic - A kernel panic is a computer error from which the ope...
  • Korn shell - The Korn shell is the UNIX shell (command execution progr...
  • Kubuntu - Ubuntu (pronounced oo-BOON-too) is an open source Debian-based ...
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M (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:35 PM
 
  • Mason - HTML::Mason (generally referred to simply as Mason) is an open sour...
  • MEPIS - MEPIS (pronounced MEHP-us) is a Linux distribution that includes th...
  • minicom - Minicom (usually written with an initial lowercase m) is a text...
  • Minix - Minux (sometimes spelled MINIX) is an open source operating system ...
  • Moblin - Moblin is a Linux-based platform that is optimized for small comp...
  • Mono Silverlight - Moonlight is an open source implementation of...
  • Moonlight - Moonlight is an open source implementation of Microsoft's S...
  • Morphis - Morphis is a Java -based open source wireless transcoding platf...
  • Mozilla - Mozilla was Netscape Communication's nickname for Navigator, it...
  • MyODBC - MySQL Connector/ODBC (sometimes called just Connector ODBC or MyO...
  • MySQL - MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) based on S...
  • MySQL Connector - MySQL Connector/ODBC (sometimes called just Con...
  • MySQL Connector/ODBC (Connector ODBC or MyODBC)
  • MySQL ODBC - MySQL Connector/ODBC (sometimes called just Connector ODB...
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N (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:36 PM
 
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O (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:38 PM
 
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P (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:39 PM
 
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Q (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:40 PM
 
  • Quagga - Quagga is an open source suite of applications for the management...
  • Quiz: Open and shut! - A quiz about open source, proprietary...
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R (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:41 PM
 
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S (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:42 PM
 
  • Samba - Samba is a popular freeware program that allows end users to access...
  • Secure Shell Charter - The Secure Shell Charter (SSH Charter...
  • Secure Shell Charter (SSH Charter) - The Secur...
  • shared source - Shared source is a software licensing concept that ...
  • Slackware - Slackware is the earliest distribution of the Linux operati...
  • Slashdot - Slashdot is a socially curated website dedicated to technolog...
  • smbclient - Samba is a popular freeware program that allows end users t...
  • Snort - Snort is an open source network intrusion detection system (NIDS) c...
  • SnortSnarf - SnortSnarf is a program that was designed for use with Sn...
  • social computing - Social computing is the collaborative and int...
  • social spreadsheet - A social spreadsheet is social software t...
  • software package - A software package is an assemblage of files ...
  • source code - Source code and object code refer to the "before" and "...
  • Squid proxy server - Squid is a Unix-based proxy server that c...
  • SSH Charter - The Secure Shell Charter (SSH Charter) is a set of pape...
  • Subversion - Subversion is a version control system that keeps track o...
  • Sugar - Sugar is a graphical user interface GUI developed for the $100 lapt...
  • SuSE - SuSE (pronounced soo'-sah) is a German Linux distribution provider an...
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T (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:43 PM
 
  • tcpdump - Tcpdump is an open source command-line tool for monitoring (sni...
  • The Open Group - The Open Group is a software standards organizati...
  • Tomcat - Tomcat is an application server from the Apache Software Foundati...
  • Torvalds, Linus - Linus Torvalds, the creator of the Linux kernel...
  • Tsunami UDP - Tsunami UDP is an open source file transfer protocol th...
  • Turtle Firewall - Turtle Firewall is an open source firewall prog...
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U (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:44 PM
 
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V (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:45 PM
 
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W (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:45 PM
 
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X (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:46 PM
 
  • Xen - Xen is an open source virtual machine monitor for x86-compatible comput...
  • Xubuntu - Ubuntu (pronounced oo-BOON-too) is an open source Debian-based ...
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Y (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:47 PM
 
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Z (OPEN SOURCE)

by System Administrator - Wednesday, 10 July 2013, 7:48 PM
 
  • zsh - Zsh is a shell (command interpreter) of the Bourne shell family, which ...

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